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首頁 > 高考總復習 > 高考知識點 > 英語高頻考點 > 2020高考英語高頻考點——寫作意圖題巧突破

2020高考英語高頻考點——寫作意圖題巧突破

2020-02-19 10:46:34高考網整理

  2020高考即將開戰,你準備好了嗎?高考網小編為各位考生整理了一些高頻考點,供大家參考閱讀!

  考點1

  寫作意圖題

  此類題型要求考生根據文章的論述,推測作者的寫作意圖及應用某種寫作手法的目的。作者一般不直接陳述自己的意圖,而是通過文章所提供的客觀事實使讀者信服某種想法或觀點。這類題型要求考生不僅能理解文章的內容,還要具備對作者所闡述的問題及使用的寫作手法進行分析和歸納總結的能力。整篇文章的寫作意圖的常見設問方式有:

  For what purpose did the author write the passage?

  The writer writes this passage in order to           .

  The purpose of the text is to           .

  某處細節的寫作目的的常見設問方式有:

  What is the purpose of the last part of the text?

  The writer uses...in the first paragraph to            .

  The writer uses the example of...to          .

  【典例1】

  (2017·北京卷·C篇)Measles(麻疹), which once killed 450 children each year and disabled even more, was nearly wiped out in the United States 14 years ago by the universal use of the MMR vaccine(疫苗). But the disease is making a comeback, caused by a growing anti\|vaccine movement and misinformation that is spreading quickly. Already this year, 115 measles cases have been reported in the USA, compared with 189 for all of last year.The numbers might sound small, but they are the leading edge of a dangerous trend. When vaccination rates are very high, as they still are in the nation as a whole, everyone is protected. This is called "herd immunity", which protects the people who get hurt easily, including those who can?t be vaccinated for medical reasons, babies too young to get vaccinated and people on whom the vaccine doesn?t work.But herd immunity works only when nearly the whole herd joins in. When some refuse vaccination and seek a free ride, immunity breaks down and everyone is in even bigger danger.That?s exactly what is happening in small neighborhoods around the country from Orange County, California, where 22 measles cases were reported this month, to Brooklyn, N.Y., where a 17\|year\|old caused an outbreak last year.The resistance to vaccine has continued for decades, and it is driven by a real but very small risk. Those who refuse to take that risk selfishly make others suffer.Making things worse are state laws that make it too easy to opt out(決定不參加) of what are supposed to be required vaccines for all children entering kindergarten. Seventeen states allow parents to get an exemption(豁免), sometimes just by signing a paper saying they personally object to a vaccine.Now, several states are moving to tighten laws by adding new regulations for opting out. But no one does enough to limit exemptions.Parents ought to be able to opt out only for limited medical or religious reasons. But personal opinions? Not good enough. Everyone enjoys the life\|saving benefits vaccines provide, but they?ll exist only as long as everyone shares in the risks.66.What is the purpose of the passage?

  A. To introduce the idea of exemption.

  B. To discuss methods to cure measles.

  C. To stress the importance of vaccination.

  D. To appeal for equal rights in medical treatment.

  【解析】這是一篇說明文。第一段大意:麻疹卷土重來。第二至三段大意: 不接種疫苗的危害。第四段大意:美國的麻疹爆發。第五至七段大意:人們對接種疫苗的抵制及一些州采取的措施。第八段大意:接種疫苗的重要性。根據上述段落大意以及最后一段中的"Everyone enjoys the life\|saving benefits vaccines provide, but they?ll exist only as long as everyone shares in the risks"可知,作者的目的是強調接種麻疹疫苗的重要性。A項"介紹豁免這一概念";B項"探討治療麻疹的辦法";D項"呼吁醫學治療的公平性"。這三項均與文章主旨無關,故排除。C。

  【技巧點撥】解此類題主要有兩種方法。

  1.主旨推斷法:寫作目的是闡述作者為何要表達某個中心主題,因此可根據文章或段落的主旨推斷作者的寫作目的。比如上述例題就是通過每段段落的主旨推斷出答案的。

  2.文體推斷法:根據文體的特點來推斷。不同體裁的文章有不同的寫作目的,故事類記敘文的寫作目的通常是使讀者感到快樂(to entertain);廣告類應用文的寫作目的是推銷產品或提供服務(to persuade);議論文的寫作目的是闡述論點(to argue);科普類說明文的寫作目的是介紹科學知識,使大家緊跟時代步伐(to inform)。上述典例就屬于說明文,其寫作目的是強調接種麻疹疫苗的重要性。

  【典例2】

  (2017·全國卷Ⅰ·A篇)...◆Support Pacific Science Center

  Since 1962, Pacific Science Center has been inspiring a passion(熱情) for discovery and lifelong learning in science, math and technology. Today, Pacific Science Center serves more than 1.3 million people a year and brings inquiry\|based science education to classrooms and community events all over Washington State. Itis an amazing accomplishment and one we cannot achieve without generous support from individuals, corporations, and other social organizations. Visit pacificsciencecenter.org to find various ways you can support Pacific Science Center.23.What is the purpose of the last part of the text?

  A. To encourage donations.

  B. To advertise coming events.

  C. To introduce special exhibits.

  D. To tell about the Centeris history.

  【解析】本題是對某處細節的寫作目的的考查。本段倒數第二句提及:要是沒有個人、大公司和其他社會組織的慷慨支持的話,我們不能實現這樣驚人的成就。最后一句呼吁人們找各種各樣的方式來支持太平洋科學中心。此處可利用排除法解題,本段并沒有為該中心做廣告,故B項的陳述錯誤;本段沒有介紹特色展品,可排除C項;本段提到這個中心創辦于1962年,但是沒有介紹它的歷史,可排除D項。只有A項提及的鼓勵捐贈與本段主旨吻合。  A。

  考點2

  觀點態度題

  觀點態度題是高考的常考點。作者及文中人物的態度、思想傾向是指作者及文中人物對某觀點是贊同、反對還是猶豫不決,對記述和描寫的人、物或事件等是贊揚、同情、冷漠還是厭惡、憎恨。作者及文中人物的這種思想傾向和感情色彩往往隱含在文章的字里行間或流露于修飾的詞語中。因此,做此類題時,應特別注意作者及文中人物的措辭。常見標志是題目中出現attitude, opinion等詞。常見的設問方式有:

  The attitude of the author towards...is        .

  What is the authoris opinion on ...?

  What?s the writeris attitude towards...?

  What does ... think about...?

  【典例3】

  (2017·全國卷Ⅱ·C篇)...Inventors have been trying to make flying cars since the 1930s, according to Robert Mann, an airline industry expert. But Mann thinks Terrafugia has come closer than anyone to making the flying car a reality. The government has already permitted the company to use special materials to make it easier for the vehicle to fly. The Transition is now going through crash tests to make sure it meets federal safety standards....30.What is the government?s attitude to the development of the flying car?

  A. Cautious. B. Favorable.C. Ambiguous. D. Disapproving.

  【解析】根據題干中的關鍵信息government定位到文章第三段(即選段)第三句"The government has already permitted the company to use special materials to make it easier for the vehicle to fly",由此可以推斷政府對此是持支持態度的。cautious謹慎的,favorable贊同的,ambiguous模棱兩可的,disapproving不贊成的。B。

  【方法點津】做觀點態度題時要注意:

  1.看清楚是誰對什么的態度,比如本題中提問的是the government is attitude,因此就要依照government來定位,在文章中找相應的依據。

  2.掌握常考的表示觀點態度的詞語,見下表:

表示支持或肯定 approving贊成的,同意的;positive積極樂觀的;supportive支持的;optimistic樂觀的;concerned關切的;favorable贊同的;sympathetic同情的;appreciative欣賞的
 表示中立  uncaring冷漠的;indifferent不感興趣,漠不關心;uninterested不感興趣的;objective客觀的;cautious謹慎的;neutral中立的;unconcerned不關心的;uncertain不確定的;ambiguous模棱兩可的
表示反對或否定  critical批評的;negative 否定的,消極的;doubtful懷疑的;suspicious懷疑的;worried 擔憂的;pessimistic悲觀的;depressed沮喪的;disappointed 失望的;ironic 諷刺的;disapproving不贊成的;gloomy前景黯淡的,悲觀的


  3.不要摻雜自己的觀點。要學會區分不同的觀點,尤其要善于找出作者的觀點。考生要注意文中出現的直接引語和間接引語,這些觀點一般是當事人的觀點,而不是作者的觀點。作者的觀點一般用in my view, in my opinion, personally, I think, I hold等引出。同時要分清選項中表示支持或肯定、中立、反對或否定的詞語,再以此對照文章內容。

  【典例4】

  In the depths of the French Guianese rainforest, there still remain unusual groups of indigenous (土著的) people. Surprisingly, these people live largely by their own laws and their own social customs...

  The lives of these people have finally been recorded thanks to the efforts of a Frenchman from Paris called Gin. Gin spent five months in early 2015 exploring the most remote corners of this area, which sits on the edge of the Amazon rainforest, with half its population of only 250,000 living in its capital, Cayenne."

  I have a special love for the French Guianese people. I have worked there on and off for almost ten years," says Gin. "I love been able to keep firm friendships with them. Thus I have been allowed to gain access to their living environment. I don?t see it as a lawless land. But rather I see it as an area of freedom."...

  Q:What is Gins attitude towards the lives of the indigenous Guianese?

  A. Cautious.   B. Doubtful.    C. Uninterested.    D. Appreciative.

  【解析】由文中第三段"I have a special love for the French Guianese people"以及"I donot see it as a lawless land. But rather I see it as an area of freedom"可知,Gin很欣賞圭亞那土著人的生活方式。D。

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